well somewhat of that can be done... you just need to create a domain and make a policy in that domain for the user that will automatically share the users "my documents" folder on that network when they login.
However, I don't think it's possible to specify the folder "my documents or any other folder" to be shared under a different folder on the network. It will just share it on the network itself.
The reverse of this is way easier which is what "root" explain by just mapping a network drive to your local computer. You can setup batch file policies to do this. But doing it the other way around i'm not exactly sure if it will work the way u want.