No - that won't work I'm afraid.
USB devices are generally designed to be either hosts (such as the ports on a PC or NAS) or clients (such as a printer, bluetooth dongle etc.) You need to have the correct drivers so the host knows how to talk to a client and what data to receive back from it etc., it's a fairly complicated procedure that's made quite simple from a user's perspective.
There's also the more basic issue of power - the hosts provide the 5V that power things such as bluetooth dongles, your printer won't provide that power to the dongle so it won't even switch on.
Plug two clients into each other, such as a bluetooth dongle and a printer, and even if you could get the power there somehow you'll find that none of them know what to do with each other - both are expecting to be told what to do and to be given instructions, and neither of them know how to talk to the other one. At least that's putting it very simply.
Hat's off for thinking outside the box though, I do admire people that are willing to try different things and poke around just to see if they can get something working that's new and cool!