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Old 02-07-2008, 03:23 AM   #1
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Post CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

CPU- Purpose
• To run program code
• To manipulate data
• The CPU is the “brain” of a computer

CPU- Manufacturers
• There are two main manufacturers of CPU “chips” or Integrated

Circuits (ICs)
– Intel
– AMD (Advanced Micro Devices)

Architecture
• The physical structure of the CPU
– Control Unit
– ALU- Arithmetic Logic Unit
– FPU- Floating Point Unit
– Data I/O Bus
– Address Bus
– Internal Data Bus (Internal Registers)
– Cache (L1, L2, L3)

Control Unit
• Decodes instructions from the currently running program
• These instructions control the actions of the:
– ALU
– FPU

Arithmetic Logic Unit / Floating Point Unit
• ALU- Arithmetic Logic Unit
– Primary processing component of CPU
– Processes data moving it back and forth between the registers as it is manipulated
• FPU- Floating Point Unit
– Performs more complex calculations than the ALU can

Data (I/O) Bus
• aka Processor bus, frontside bus, processor-side bus
• The pathway used to move data between the CPU, RAM and

chipset (Northbridge or MCH)
• Typically 64 bits wide
• Speed measured in MHz
• The wider and faster the bus the better

Address Bus
• Carries the addressing information that the CPU uses to access data in RAM (Random Access Memory)
• The wider the bus the more memory that can be accessed

Internal Data Bus
• aka (Internal) Registers
• Temporary internal storage
• Identifies:
– How much data the CPU can operate on per clock cycle
– How data is moved around the CPU internally
• Bus widths:
– 32 bits wide (≤80486)
• Allows 32-bit OS and applications to be run
– 32 or 64 bits wide (≥Pentium and AMD K5)
• Allows 32-or 64-bit OS and applications to be run

Cache Memory
• High speed memory placed between the processor and RAM
• Temporarily stores data that the processor needs
• Provides faster access to this data than if it was accessed directly from RAM
• Is a form of intelligent buffer
– An algorithm tries to predict what data is required next
• Built into the CPU die (ie part of the CPU core)
• Runs at the speed of the CPU
• All CPUs support L1 and L2 cache
• Some CPUs support L3 cache
• L1- Level 1
– Closest to the CPU
– Typical size: 32KB
• L2- Level 2
– Slightly further away from the CPU
– Connected to the CPU via the backside bus
– Typical size: 2MB
• L3- Level 3
– Only found on some server processors
– Larger size L2 cache usually replaces L3

CPU Modes
• Real Mode
– Runs 16-bit software
• IA-32 Mode (IA- Intel Architecture)
– Protected Mode (Runs 32-bit software)
– Virtual Real Mode/V86 Mode (Runs 16-bit software in a 32-bit environment)
• IA-32e 64-bit Extension Mode (64bit CPUs only)
– 64-bit Mode (Runs 64-bit software)
– Compatibility Mode (Runs 32-bit software in a 64-bit environment)

CPU Technologies
• The features of the CPU
– Speed
– Multiplier/Overclocking/Throttling
– Pipelining
– Hyperthreading
– Dual/Quad Core
– Micro Code (MMX)
– Voltage Regulator Module (VRM)

Speed
• How fast the CPU operates
• Based on the oscillations of a crystal, typically, contained in the
chipset
• Measured in millions or billions of cycles per second (MHz or GHz)
• Due to the differences in internal archi-tecture between processors/manufacturers
• Comparing raw speeds of different processors is not always a good indication of which processor is the faster of two, ie multiple instructions per clock cycle
• AMD rates it’s processor speeds in relation to Intel even though the actual speed may be slower
Multiplier
• The factor which matches the speed of the motherboard bus to the internal speed of the CPU
• Can be set automatically or from within BIOS

Overclocking
• Running a CPU at a speed faster than its rated speed
• Can provide better performance but with potentially reduced life
• Is setup via BIOS
• Increase clock speed incrementally

Throttling
• Slowing down the CPU to reduce:
– Power consumption
– Heat
– Noise from cooling fans
• Automatically controlled by the CPU

Pipelining
• aka Superscalar Technology
• A technique to speed up instruction execution
• Multiple instructions can be executed per clock cycle

Hyper Threading Technology
• HTT allows a single processor:
– To run two independent sets of instructions simultaneously
– To create two logical processors
• An OS with Symmetric Multi-processing (SMP) support sees these two logical processors as two separate processors
• Each HTT enabled processor has:
– Two sets of general purpose and control registers
– Shared cache, execution units and buses
• Each logical processor is able to process a single thread simultaneously
– Thread: a small part of a program that is being executed
• If one processor is idle, the other can use its unused resources
• HTT requires:
– A compatible chipset/BIOS
– A BIOS where HTT can be enabled or disabled depending on OS support for HTT
– An OS that supports HTT
• Not all applications support HTT and may run slower as a result

Multi-Core CPUs
• Dual Core
– Two processors (cores) built onto a single die
• Quad Core
– Four processors (cores) built onto a single die
• The cores share system resources, eg L2 cache
• Requires a single motherboard socket
• Theoretically:
– Do not require a Motherboard upgrade
• Practically:
– Might require a BIOS/Chipset upgrade
• No need to re-write applications to use multi-core as each core is seen as a separate processor
Multimedia Extensions MMX
• Introduced with the Pentium 2 (P2), giving:
– Improved video compression/decompression
– Image manipulation
– Encryption
– I/O processing
• MMX Architecture provided:
– Added 57 new commands to instruction set
– Single Instruction, Multiple Data SIMD

Voltage Regulator Module (VRM)
• Electronic circuit built into the motherboard
• Senses the processor operating voltage
• Provides that operating voltage to the processor

Cooling Systems
• The CPU needs to be cooled to keep it within its operating temperature range
• Cooling can be provided by:
– Passive heat sinks
– Active heat sinks
– Case mounted fans

Passive Heatsink
• A passive heatsink is an aluminium-finned radiator mounted on the
CPU chip
– It dissipates heat by convection
– The fins provide a greater surface area for more efficient cooling
– The heatsink may be clamped or screwed down

Active Heatsink
• An active heatsink is a passive heatsink with an additional cooling mechanism
– Air Cooling
• Cool air is forced over a CPU mounted heatsink by means of a fan mounted on the heatsink
– Liquid Cooling
• Heat is extracted from the CPU by liquid flowing through a water block attached to it
• A pump circulates the liquid through a radiator which cools it

Case Fans
• Case fans are extra cooling fans mounted within the PC case
– Are separate to the PSU fan
– Provide additional cooling
– Note:
• Ensure the PSU can power the extra fans
• Check the airflow direction of the fans before mounting

Thermal Compound
• Thermal Compound is a glue-like zinc-based paste placed between the processor and heatsink
– It aids the transfer of heat between processor and heat sink or water block
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Old 02-07-2008, 03:25 AM   #2
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Default Re: CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

P.S This is all my own work!!
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Old 02-07-2008, 03:44 AM   #3
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Default Re: CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

Is this what is covered in the A+ exams?
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Old 02-07-2008, 04:28 AM   #4
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Default Re: CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

what has this got to do with ??
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Old 02-07-2008, 07:35 AM   #5
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Default Re: CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

Quote:
Originally Posted by cavemangrinder View Post
Is this what is covered in the A+ exams?
No, a lot of this isn't.

Be careful when you say quad's and dual core system share L2 cache's. Early AMD dual-cores did not share an L2 cache. Not sure if that was ever changed even in their quads.
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Old 02-07-2008, 09:53 AM   #6
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Default Re: CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

Quote:
Originally Posted by cavemangrinder View Post
Is this what is covered in the A+ exams?
I hardly see it being relevant to the A+ exams, they don't focus on that type of info.
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Old 02-07-2008, 03:45 PM   #7
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Default Re: CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

Quote:
Originally Posted by DJ-CHRIS View Post
I hardly see it being relevant to the A+ exams, they don't focus on that type of info.
Right. On the current exam, really nothing older than five years is mentioned, and anything below windows 2000 is ignored.

Honestly, I think typing this thread was a waste of the OP's time.
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Old 02-08-2008, 04:42 PM   #8
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Default Re: CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

this is just covering the cpu section.
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Old 02-08-2008, 04:44 PM   #9
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Default Re: CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

Quote:
Originally Posted by cryman View Post
what has this got to do with ??
This has to do with the CompTIA A+ Exams if you dont no what that is go find out.
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Old 02-08-2008, 04:48 PM   #10
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Default Re: CPU's and Everything you need to know, "CompTIA Standard":

Quote:
Originally Posted by DJ-CHRIS View Post
I hardly see it being relevant to the A+ exams, they don't focus on that type of info.
dude just because u have already done the exams ok, this is what we got given for the cpu section ok, im just trying to help those other people that are doing it like me, so SOD OFF. this thread was also intended for those who are just interested and that dont know.
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