1.If you use Windows, its much easier for a beginner to host a website using IIS rather than apache.
2.You can author static pages in HTML, this is the most basic form of web designing.
3. Consult man's best friend- Googlebot
4.Its advisable that you use a 3rd party dynamic DNS service if you are hosting the website off of your own computer.
5.Yes your website would be domain.com/.net/.whatever
6. You need to check with your ISP. If you have a dedicated IP address, then most definitely YES.
7.In theory yes, but its not advisable as DNS propogation throughout the internet (13 international domain root servers) takes 24 to 48 hours. That means everytime your IP changes, it could take 24 to 48 hours for all visitors to access your website.